Iran, known as Persia, has been a land of civilization at the heart of history. The Persian plateau became the cradle of one of the oldest civilizations and Kingdoms in history. Today’s Khuzestan Province in Southwest Iran was home to the ancient civilization of Susa which dates back to 7000 BCE long before Aryans came to the land.
Since 4000 BC, empires have ruled and shined in Persia leaving behind traces of civilization that are truly priceless. A land that shined throughout the history of mankind under the rule of Achaemenid Empire founded by Cyrus the Great who created the largest empire the world had yet seen, from the Mediterranean Sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east.
Cyrus proclaimed what has been identified by scholars and archaeologists to be the oldest known declaration of human rights, which was transcribed onto the Cyrus Cylinder sometime between 539 and 530 BC. Having conquered numerous lands and having endured invasions too, Iran has developed a unique national identity throughout centuries as the cradle of civilizations.
Iran’s history has divided in two parts before and after Islam . Empires like Medes, Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian were among the great and powerful empires before the Islam. The Achaemenid was the first Persian empire that is founded by Cyrus the Great. For the first time in history, the postal system, road system and the use of official language across the territories is being set during the Achaemenid empire.
|4000 BCE||civilizations like Azerbaijan, Susa, Sistan and Tabarestan|
|2500 BCE||The Elamite Empire(The Old-The Middle-The Neo-elamite)|
|700 BCE||The Median Empire (Ecbatana, the capital)|
|550 BCE||The Achaemenid Empire ( Cyrus the Great- The Cyrus cilynder)|
|300 BCE||The Seleucid Empire (after the death of Alexander)|
|200 CE||The Sasanid Empire (Ardeshir-e Papakan)|
|637 CE||The Islamic Conquest( Rise of several dynasties)|
|962 CE||The Ghaznavid Dynasty(Shahname by the Ferdowsi)|
|1502||The Safavid Empire(Shi’a as the religion)|
|1794||The Qajar Dynasty(First World War)|
|1925||The Pahlavi Dynasty(Second World War)|
|1979||The Islamic revolution and establishment of Islamic republic of Iran|